Best Programming Languages to be Learning in 2022

Best Programming Languages to be Learning in 2022

Knowing how to write a computer program is an important skill to have today. Computers have become an integral part of almost all industries and various aspects of them, like the autopilot in aircraft and the digital speedometer used on bikes. Every product or service being provided to consumers today makes use of computers in one form or another. Then the question arises, what is the best programming language, to begin with on this amazing journey. Communities of developers and programming itself are evolving at a fast pace, new frameworks and programming languages are being introduced in the industry that is well suited for different categories of developers such as beginners or advanced developers and for different uses like web applications, game development, mobile applications or distributed systems. If you want to advance your skill-set and shift into this field, first you must begin by understanding the different types of programming languages and their different levels of them. 

The Levels of Programming 

Several programming languages exist, each serves a specific purpose and has a unique set of syntax and keywords that are used for creating their instructions. On the basis of their level of abstraction, each programming language can be out into one of the two categories:

Low-Level Language

The abstraction of a low-level language exists at the level of the hardware and is represented in the form of binary 1 or 0. These are instructions for the machines. Low-level languages can also be further divided into machine and assembly level languages. 

High-Level Language

A high-level language gives you the ability to write a program that will be independent of the type of your computer device. They are called high-level languages because they are close to the human languages compared to low-level languages in their understanding. But they require you to give more focus to the logic of the problem. These languages also require a compiler for translating the high-level language to a low-level language so that it fits the machine’s understanding. 

Before you can decide on which language you want to start learning for 2022, it is important to first understand the types of programming languages that exist. This classification is different from high and level languages, this classification is done on the basis of how the code is designed and employed. 

Types of Programming 

1. Procedural Programming Languages

The paradigm of these languages has been derived from firmly structured programming languages that have a specific series and well-structured procedures and steps that make up a program. There are a set of commands that can be used for the segregation of the program into functions, variables, conditional operators and statements. 

2. Functional Programming Languages

This programming language has a declarative paradigm, meaning that a program is constructed by the application and compositions of functions. The emphasis of these languages is on declarations and expressions. The foundations of all functional programming languages are in lambda calculus. It makes use of conditional expressions as well as recursive functions for performing calculations. Iterative statements such as loops and conditional statements are not supported. 

3. Object-oriented Programming Language

These languages are based on objects, objects being units that contain data along with their associated methods or procedures. Object-oriented programming languages have many features including encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, classes and polymorphism. Security of code is primarily ensured by encapsulation. It also places importance on the reusability of code through the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism. This allows the current implementations to become enhanced without having to make too many changes in the code. 

4. Scripting Languages

Each of the scripting languages can be thought of as a programming language that does not need compilation. Instead, they go through the step called interpretation. The instructions in these languages are written for the run-time environment. Such languages usually find their use in web application development, system administrations, multimedia and game application development. It is also used for creating plugins and extensions for applications in use. 

5. Logic Programming

Formal logic mainly forms the basis for these programming languages. The language will dictate to the machine about what is to be done, it will employ instructions on what it should consider doing. ASAP, Datalog and PROLOG are the common logic programming languages. The rules of these languages are written as classes. 

Top Programming Languages For 2022

1. Python

This language is on top of the list. Many think of python to be the best programming language to be learning simply because it has an easy approach. The language is easy to use, fast, has easy deployment and is widely used for developing scalable applications. Some famous applications using python include Instagram, YouTube and Pinterest. Python can be a good point of start for beginners. If you take into consideration the accessibility and popularity of the language you want to learn, then python is a must-try. 

Start-ups nowadays are commonly making use of Python for the backend work of their business which gives them a lot of opportunities for developers of full-stack Python. If you wish to get into the field of data science and artificial intelligence, you should consider learning Python. This language also finds its use in web development. It is a good place to begin for beginners due to its versatility and accessibility. It is easy for beginners and has the highest volume of jobs accompanying it that have a high average salary. 


  • The creation of the usage of classes and objects in Python is easy because of object-oriented characteristics. 
  • Python libraries have extensive support.
  • The focus of Python js is on the readability of code.
  • Python has capabilities for scaling even for complex applications. 
  • Python is suited for creating prototypes and testing out the ideas developers have at a faster pace. 
  • This language is open source and has growing support from a massive community.
  • Python makes available support for numerous platforms and systems. 
  • Python is easy to use and learn. 


  • Python is not suited for mobile computing.
  • Since it is an interpreted language, it is slow.
  • The access layer of the database is immature.
  • Due to global interpreter lock, threading is not good. 

2. Java

Java is a programming language that has been popular among organizations and has been so for decades. It is useful for building web applications at the scale of an enterprise. Java is known for its stability and that is the reason many enterprises have adopted it. If you wish to go into the field of software development in an established company, you should consider learning Java. 

Android application development is majorly done with the help of Java. Almost all businesses today require at least one android application because billions of people across the world use android applications. This means it is a good opportunity for developers who work with Java, even Google has created a Java-based framework for android applications called Android Studio. The difficulty of learning Java is easy to moderate and this programming language has excellent career prospects, because of its usage by many large enterprises. 


  • Java has numerous libraries that are open source.
  • Java supports automatic allocation of memory as well as a collection of garbage.
  • Java follows the paradigm of object-oriented programming.
  • Java has a system for stack allocation.
  • Java has a high degree of independence with respect to platforms because of the JVM feature.
  • Java can offer high security because of the exclusion of the explicit pointer. There is also the inclusion of a security manager that takes the responsibility for defining the access in classes. 
  • Java is suited for use in distributed computing.
  • Java has offered a lot of APIs for doing different tasks like the connection with the database, utilities, networking and parsing of XML. 
  • Java provides support for multithreading. 


  • Java has an absence of templates and hence there is a limit on the creation of high-quality data structures.
  • Memory management in Java is expensive.
  • The compilation of Java is slower compared to other natively compiled languages.

3. C/C++

Both these languages have gained a significant presence in the programming field. All the low-level systems like life systems and operating systems are written with the help of C or C++. If you want to become a programmer at system levels, these are the programming languages you should start working on. C++ is very commonly used for competitive programming because it is fast and has stability. 

It also has a standard template library, a pool of libraries that are ready to use and compatible with a variety of data structures, arithmetic operations and algorithms. The support in the form of libraries and the speed of the language is what makes it a preferred choice in the trading community that handle high frequencies. It is moderately difficult to learn and has good career prospects, but not commonly offered a job opening. 


  • C++ has numerous libraries and compilers to work with.
  • C language offers ease of blocking access and hiding objects.
  • Both the languages are as fast in executing the program. 
  • Learning C/C++ can form a good basis for understanding other programming languages. 
  • C++ is suitable for creating applications that are compatible with multiple devices and platforms.
  • C language supports a high degree of portability.
  • C language is procedure-oriented and has a group of blocks and function modules. These are useful for testing, debugging and maintaining the program easily. 
  • Programs written in these languages are efficient and have easy understanding.
  • The function library of C++ is very rich.
  • Both these languages are running close to the hardware of the system and offer low-level abstraction.
  • Function overloading is supported by C++ along with exception handling.
  • C++ can be used in a wide range of application domains such as real-time mathematical simulations, GUI applications and games. 


  • C and C++ are known to have a little complicated syntax. 
  • C does not provide support for the namespace in a program.
  • C cannot be used for solving real-world programming challenges. 
  • C++ has lower efficiency as an object-oriented system compared to other object-oriented languages.
  • C needs to manually create constructs of high level.
  • Dynamic memory allocations in the collection of garbage are not supported by both languages. 
  • Both these languages do not have to check at runtime. 
  • C does not have type checking that is strict. 
  • These are not easy to learn as first programming languages.
  • Issues of corruption of memory and buffer overflow are commonly encountered.
  • C has a small standard library. 

4. JavaScript

This programming language mainly finds its use in front-end development. It is used for designing responsive and interactive front-end applications. JavaScript is in play when a button is clicked and a popup appears on the screen. Start-ups and many organizations make use of the run-time environment of JavaScript called NodeJS. 

Developers using NodeJS can make use of JavaScript for the purpose of server-side scripting. This means they will be able to run scripts on the server-side for producing dynamic web pages and their content before the page is sent to the browser of the user. That is how JavaScript can be used for the purpose of client-side as well as server-side scripting. If you wish to have a nice career that begins at a startup, you should begin learning JavaScript. This programming language is easy to learn and has excellent career prospects as numerous startups make use of it. 


  • JavaScript runs from the client-side is fast. It is able to run immediately in the web browser because there is no requirement for compilation.
  • JavaScript is responsible for bringing richness to the interfaces of websites.
  • This language has high versatility.
  • JavaScript is the language of the web.
  • There is a reduced demand in the server of the website because it is client-side.
  • Regular updation is done through the specifications of the ECMA.
  • Add-ons like Greasemonkey are available for the extension of existing functionalities.
  • The implementation of JavaScript is simple.
  • JavaScript has numerous resources and support from a vast community.
  • JavaScript finds its usage in the building of a vast variety of applications.
  • JavaScript works smoothly with other programming languages. 


  • There is no copy or an equivalent method in JavaScript.
  • JavaScript makes allowance for only single inheritance.
  • As the execution of the program continues in the machine of the user, people may choose to disable javascript for being safe from any malicious intentions. 
  • Different browsers may have different interpretations of the same JavaScript code. 

5. Golang (or Go)

Golang is the language that has been designed by Google. It supports multithreading well and hence it often finds its use in companies that are relying on distributed systems along with startups of the Silicon Valley. If you want to join a startup based in Silicon Valley that specializes in core systems, you should begin learning Golang. It is moderately easy to learn and has a healthy amount of career opportunities. It is greatly suitable for those who have a clear goal of what they want to be. 


  • It is more secure because it is a statically typed language. 
  • The syntax of Golang is clean and hence it is easy to learn.
  • The standard library of Golang is comprehensive and they offer a wide range of built-in functions to work well with primitive types. 
  • It is suited for developing single-page applications.
  • The documentation of this language is smart. 
  • It is compiled as machine code and hence is very fast. 


  • There is an absence of virtual machines and hence it is complex and the program may be less efficient. 
  • The interfaces of Golang are implicit.
  • There is a lack of versatility.
  • There are no GUI libraries.
  • The library support for Golang is underprivileged.

6. R

This programming language finds its use in data analysis and machine learning more often. R gives developers frameworks and built-in libraries for the development of machine learning algorithms that are powerful. General statistical computing also makes use of R. R is also used by many enterprises. If you want to become a part of a team of analysts in a large organization, you should learn R. It is easy to learn and has excellent career prospects. 


  • R can run smoothly on various operating systems. 
  • R has an actively growing community.
  • Since R is open-source and makes free grants, there is an ability to make tweaks. 
  • This language can be useful in comprehensive statistical analysis.
  • It is highly extensible.
  • The ecosystem of packages is powerful.


  • There is a lack of security features.
  • There are no strict guidelines for programming.
  • The management of memory of the poor.
  • Some packages can be of sub-par quality.

7. Swift

This programming language is commonly used for the development of iOS applications and devices that make use of this operating system are growing famous. A significant share of the mobile market has been captured bg Apple iPhones, giving tough competition to Android. If you wish to work in the development of iOS, you should learn Swift. It is moderately easy to learn and has excellent career prospects especially in the field of iOS applications. 


  • Memory leaks in Swift are prevented from active management of memory. 
  • It has the backing of Apple.
  • It offers good scalability and allows easy addition of functionalities to products or from bringing more developers. 
  • Swift makes the addition of new features easy.
  • Swift gives encouragement to developers to write code that is clean and easily readable. 
  • The syntax of Swift is English-like and hence makes it readable.
  • It has interoperability with objective C.
  • Server-side Swift can be interested in any technology.
  • The sharing of code and the process of development is faster with Swift for both back-end and front-end development.
  • Swift is faster compared to many popular programming languages. 


  • The support from the community as well as resources is limited.
  • Swift is a little unstable because it is relatively new in the programming world.
  • It does not have support for legacy projects and can only be used with iOS 7 or later applications. 

8. PHP

This programming language is primarily used in back-end development. Though there is tough competition for PHP from Python and JavaScript, there is still a need for a number of developers who have a good understanding of PHP. If you wish to get a job in an organization that is well-established and work as a backend developer, you should learn PHP. It is an easy learning experience and has excellent career prospects with large organizations. 


  • PHP has abundant frameworks that are also powerful. 
  • You can easily get started with PHP for creating web pages. 
  • First-class debugging is available through Xdebug. 
  • It is supported by a large community and also has a vast ecosystem. 
  • Numerous tools for automation are available for performing tests and deploying applications. 
  • It is not lacking tools for testing and deployment of applications.
  • Paradigms of functional programming, as well as object-oriented programming, are supported by PHP. 


  • The development of websites with the use of PHP is slow in comparison to the use of other available options. 
  • There is a lack of security in PHP.
  • Handling of errors done by PHP is poor.
  • Large reliance on extensions exists in PHP.

9. C#

This is a general-purpose programming language developed by Microsoft. C# find wide use in backend programming as well as for building games with the help of UNity. The creation of Windows mobile applications also makes use of C#. If you wish to be working in the development of desktop applications then you should begin learning C#. It is moderately easy to learn but does not have very good career prospects compared to other languages. 


  • C# is safer than C or C++ as pointers are not permitted in this language.
  • Developers working with C# will have the ability to be working and sharing their codebases.
  • Scalability and update are automatic.
  • It is a component-oriented as well as an object-oriented programming language.
  • The syntax of C# is similar to that of C.
  • It has full integration with the .NET library.
  • C# is well suited for developing Windows. 
  • It has a vast set of library functions and data types.
  • It executes and compiles quickly.


  • With unsafe blocks, pointers become permissible.
  • A garbage collector helps with the deallocation of memory and the variables are references. 
  • It has less flexibility than C++.
  • A decent amount of time and effort needs to be given to learning C#.
  • Expertise and good knowledge are required for the resolution of errors.  


This programming language finds its use as a statistical analysis tool and is used for data analysis. MATLAB is used for processing images and computer vision. This is suitable for those who wish to be working in the field of deep learning, machine learning, computational finance or communications and signal processing. It is moderately easy to learn and has great career prospects as its usage in cutting-edge fields is quite common.


  • It makes the development of scientific simulations easy because of a vast in-built library.
  • The functionalities of MATLAB can be extended by the addition of toolboxes. 
  • The efficiency of coding in MATLAB is high and its productivity does not depend on the execution of the compiler.
  • It is excellent for the development of applications for scientific research.
  • A MATLAB coder makes allowance for conversion of code to other languages. 
  • MATLAB programming language is independent of the platform.


  • MATLAB is not free for use and requires you to buy a license.
  • Beyond numerical computation, MATLAB does not have much scope. 
  • During cross-compilation, the errors that are generated require experience and knowledge of the language for a resolution.
  • Since it is an interpreted programming language, it is slow.

When making a decision about which programming language to learn, keep your career goals in mind. If you want to go into machine learning or the field of deep learning, you should not second your time on Java and C#. Python and JavaScript are currently famous among startups, with the common use of Flask and Django along with NodeJS for backend frameworks. Both the languages are easy to learn and hence good for beginners, with a lot of opportunities in the market. Corporations often find themselves using Java and PHP. Many corporations also use Codeigniter and Spring for their backend framework. The programming languages that have a huge presence in the field of data analytics are R and MATLAB. That means that these are the languages to consider learning if you want to work in data science or data analytics. C, C++ and Golang should be considered if you want to develop scalable systems with low latency.

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